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Noordin M. Top Sangat Mungkin Tewas

Noordin M. Top Sangat Mungkin Tewas

Temanggung (ANTARA) - Seseorang lelaki yang diduga Noordin M. Top, gembong teroris paling dicari aparat keamaan diduga kuat tewas dalam penyergapan yang dilakukan Densus 88 di rumah Muhzuhri di Desa Beji, Kecamatan Kedu, Kabupaten Temanggung, Jawa Tengah, Sabtu.

Wartawan ANTARA dari lokasi kejadian Sabtu pukul 09:50 WIB melaporkan, polisi mendapati seorang di dalam rumah tersebut tewas, namun belum diperoleh keterangan resmi dari aparat keamanan mengenai siapa sebenarnya korban yang tewas di dalam rumah itu.

Sejak awal aparat keamanan yang melakukan pengepungan di rumah tersebut sejak Jumat (7/8) pukul 16:00 WIB menduga kuat bahwa Noordin berada di dalam rumah tersebut. (*)

Smart Blogging

General Safety
1. Remove yourself from situations that make you uncomfortable
You’re likely to come across blogs on the Internet that make you uncomfortable. Some might have harsh language, opinions with which you don’t agree, inappropriate sexual matter, violence, or other context you find disturbing. Remember, when you encounter sites that make you uncomfortable, you can remove yourself immediately. Hit the back button – it’s that simple.

Protect yourself and your Privacy
1.Never give out personal information without checking with your parents first.

2.Never put your full name, telephone, address, school, or other identifying information on your blog. This includes local school sports teams and the places you hang out with friends. It is not recommended that you post your photo, either – these are easy ways for predators to identify you and track you down.

3.Share what you post on the Internet with your parents. This doesn’t mean they need to read it every day, but if you’re not comfortable sharing what you’re writing with them, chances are the information could put you in danger – with your friends, or on a personal safety level.

4.Keep your personal profile private; select your preferences so that this information does not display to the public unless you are certain there is no information that makes you easily identified.

5.Never lie about your age when you sign up for a blog.

6.Never meet with someone you meet online or through a blog. If you plan to do so, consult an adult and meet in a public place with an adult or large group of friends.

7.Control your “friends” list on your blog very carefully. Use caution when adding strangers to your list. Be extremely careful when adding information you post that can be accessed by people outside your friends list.

8.If you allow unknown persons to post comments to your blog, check them regularly and deledte comments that are mean, threatening, or that could embarrass you or your friends. Don’t respond to flaming messages – just delete them, and block these kinds of individuals from posting to your blog in the future.

Layout Elements

There are basic design elements we will discuss throughout this book. You need to know their names, since all in-house designs use some of these elements. There are dozens of other objects familiar to professional designers, but most are related directly to these major items.
Layout elements serve to either provide information to readers or to attract their attention. In the best situations, these elements accomplish both tasks. You might have a newspaper, magazine, and a few business documents at hand while reading this chapter.

Identity Tags

Textual and graphical elements which identify your company or publication are known as identity tags. Tagging your documents is of obvious importance. There are two major elements used to reinforce identity. We discuss designing these elements later.


A logo is a graphical element or stylized treatment of text which is used to quickly identify your company. If text has not been stylized, the result is not considered a logo. A modern logo should not contain your full company name. Ideally, a logo can be reduced to less than one-inch square and still be recognized by your clients.

Some companies develop more than one logo – one for each corporate division or product line. These companies want clients to think of these units as distinct entities. In these cases, you still want to strive for a consistent look among logos, unless the products are contradictory. For example, a conglomerate would not want a cigarette line associated with a health food line.


When you combine a logo with a publication or company name, you create a nameplate. Some companies have a nameplate with no logo. In these cases text has not been stylized to attract attention. Text-only nameplates are preferred by companies and publications wanting to appear “serious.” Of course, you have to select a correspondingly serious typeface.
The name on the cover of magazines and on page one of newspapers is known as the publication’s nameplate. Some designers argue that only publications have nameplates. It’s possible that you will design both corporate, division, and publication nameplates.


Lines of text which are set in larger type for the purpose of attracting readers are headlines. Most documents contain headlines, though most people call them headings when discussing documents other than periodicals such as magazines and newsletters.

Special Headlines

Traditional and banner headlines are over-used by most beginning in-house designers. More modern tricks can spice up a layout with a little extra effort. Newspapers and magazines make frequent use of additional, smaller headlines to add flair.


In a lengthy article, subheads can be used to break text into shorter segments. Subheads can also appear beneath a headline, but should not be too detailed. Remember, you want your article to be read – headlines should tease readers and pique their interest.


A kicker is a smaller-font headline, often underlined, just above the main headline. Kickers are often a one or two word identifier used to help readers select articles. Ideally, kickers classify articles.


A hammer is a larger headline above a smaller main headline. Using just a few words – three or less – you can attract attention to a major article. A hammer should be obvious, such as “Desert Storm” or “Stocks Plummet.”


A deck is a short summary of the article. Decks are often confused with subheads. Decks allow a reader to get the main point of an article without reading further. Due to the nature of decks, you might want to reserve them for analysis articles, since the facts are generally already known by readers.

Document Text

Communication is the primary purpose of any corporate document. As an in-house designer you must pay special attention to textual elements. Most documents feature several textual elements – otherwise they would be bland columns of text.


The name of a writer and his or her staff position appear as a byline, usually preceding an article. Bylines are generally smaller size and in a different face than the text of an article. Bylines appear in newsletters, magazines, and newspapers. If a newsletter is predominately a promotional tool, we suggest not including bylines. Readers associate bylines with unbiased reporting.

Body Copy

The primary text of an article is known as the body copy. Any text is generically referred to as copy, while body copy refers specifically to the bulk of the article. In upcoming chapters, we discuss the importance of selecting a readable font for body copy.

Initial and Drop Caps

Older books or stylish magazine layouts often feature a large capital letter at the beginning of paragraphs. These large capitals are known as drop caps or initial caps. While most large initial caps drop into text below the first line, some sit on the first line of text.

Pull Quotes

When you want to draw attention to a dramatic quote, you can reprint the quote in larger type within the article. The second, larger version of the quote is known as a pull quote. The phrase pull quote refers to the fact that the quote is pulled from within the body copy.

Headers and Footers

Text appearing above the top body copy margin is a header. Below the bottom body copy margin, text is referred to as a footer. Headers and footers usually contain a document name, page numbers, and other reference information. Newspapers and newsletters feature special headers and footers, known as datelines and folios.


When you include photos, artwork, or infographics, you might need a caption to give readers a bit more detail. Captions are generally set in a small but easy to read font.


Smaller articles or lists of facts which appear in boxes alongside the body copy are known as sidebars. Often, sidebars provide additional information not included in the body of the article.


Most newspapers feature little boxes with artwork and headlines on the front page. These boxes are teasers – they tease you to read the article. Teasers should be creative, since they are not inherently informative. Some newspapers even avoid printing scores in teaser boxes for sports stories.

Other Text Elements

Text elements with limited uses are discussed in future chapters. These elements include folios, jumplines, and other specialized layout text elements.
Visual Elements
In-house designers should borrow great design elements they see in other documents. The odds are that you have seen most of the common elements. Three visual elements attract the most attention: photos, artwork, and infographics.


Nothing attracts attention – and provides insight – better than a good photo. Photographs are difficult for most in-house designers to incorporate into their documents. If you plan to place photos in your layouts, be sure the quality is acceptable and not amateurish.


Any graphical element can be referred to as artwork, but in most cases we are discussing cartoons or illustrations. Most artwork serves to attract attention. Editorial cartoons express ideas, but most artwork is meant to appeal to readers.


Charts, maps, and diagrams are infographics. Just as the name implies, these are informational graphic elements. Use infographics sparingly, since they have to be reasonably large for clarity. If you have ever tried to interpret a small graph, you understand why infographics need to be at least several square inches.

Other Visual Elements

Subtle visual tools help unite the dominant elements in a layout. While these elements are easy to overlook, failure to use them properly ruins a layout. If these minor elements are too obvious, not blending into the layout, then you need to redesign your document.


Straight lines are known as rules. Rules are frequently used to separate columns of text or information about a publication from text. Many beginning designers use too many rules, creating a confusing road-map effect. Often, the thinner you can make a rule, the more effective it is.

Boxes and Borders

Designers use boxes and borders to group related elements. Boxes are used to clarify the edges of photographs, artwork, or infographics. Sometimes, teasers or sidebars are boxed, as well.
Borders group more than one box or group an entire page. Do not border unrelated elements. Artistic borders are easier to use and abuse thanks to computer software. Be sure than you do not use borders that overshadow their content.


Designers like to accent items in lists with bullets. Bullets are usually simple shapes, such as small circles or squares. Bullets should not be larger than the font used for the text of a list.


Often used as bullets, dingbats might be regarded as artwork. Dingbats, while packaged as fonts, contain such items as international symbols, computer icons, and other small drawings.
Invisible Elements
Invisible elements anchor printed ones to the layout.
Just as a house’s foundation is invisible – disregarding floods and earthquakes – the foundations of documents are invisible. These invisible elements form the foundation and frame of solid designs.

White Space

Just as the name implies, white space refers to any spot on a page without ink. White space can be increased or decreased to change the “openness” of a layout. Too little white space results in gray pages, while too much and it looks as if you failed to compile a complete document.
Margins and Gutters
Several types of margins keep printed elements from bumping into each other or running off a page. A margin is an area of white space serving as a buffer zone. The most obvious margins are at the four edges of a page. Boxes also have margins. These margins keep the rules and text apart.
The margins between columns or between pages in a book are known as gutters. Often a gutter margin is greater than an edge margin to allow for book binding.


Grids are the underlying geometric patterns found in layouts. These patterns might not be rectangles.
Each page of a document is based upon a grid. A grid is the underlying pattern of geometric shapes guiding the placement of visible objects. While a newspaper or newsletter is likely to use only rectangular grids, many magazines and flyers use triangular and oval shapes.
Use tracing paper to outline the grids of documents available to you. Each object should be outlined separately. Remember that a good design foundation might be hiding in even the worst layout.


The individual shapes in a grid are frames. Some computer software allows you to create frames and then fill them with the appropriate content. Other programs create frames as you place elements onto a page.


Text frames are divided into columns. You might have thought that each column was a frame, but this is not always the case. Columns must be constructed carefully. If text columns are too narrow or too wide, they are difficult to read.

Summary & Tips

Speed or Bandwidth of an Internet Connection

It is common practice to refer to the speed of an Internet connection in units of Bits per Second (bps). The higher this value the higher the rate of information transfer. Connection types vary all the way from dial-up through modem to microwave, satellite communication and optical (glass) fibre.

What is the speed/bandwidth of my connection?
Before answering this question, you should understand that you never get the maximum theoretical speed from a connection. Well, almost never. This is because there are factors such as line noise, errors, resends, other traffic (besides your own) that reduce the transmission rate. Bandwidth is a term that considers the Internet connection to be like a water pipe; the bigger the pipe the more water it can deliver in a given time.

Here are some of the common line speeds, and what they mean in actual bandwidth:

Note also that bps stands for bits per second, not bytes (a byte represents an individual character). Divide by 8 to get a bytes/second value. So 28 Kbps works out to about 3 K per second transfer, in theory. In practice the rate will be somewhat lower, perhaps about 2 K per second. An unformatted (plain text) page of writing is approximately 2 K bytes in size. A typical page of a Word document will be much larger (particularly if there are graphic elements). The speeds given in the table are nominal maximum values. In the case of both ADSL and Cable values about half those posted are more likely. A download (receive) speed may also be much higher than an upload (send) speed.

According to Cyberlabs:

These results would place the 4Mb/s Cable modem 138 times faster than a 28.8kb/s modem, and 72 times faster than 56kb/s modem. The 10Mb/s Cable modem, respectively, would be 345 times faster than 28.8, and 180 times faster than 56.6.

Under ideal conditions, this is how long it takes to download a 2MB file:
Cable Modem: 11 seconds ISDN: 2.1 minutes 28.8 modem: 9.3 minutes

Write a report on Internet connection speeds on your personal computer at home (if you do not have access to a computer at home use the school network).

In your report identify the devices that are involved in your home connection:
• Computer: brand, model, speed, RAM
• Method of connection to the Internet: dial-up, cable, ADSL etc.
• Modem: brand, model, speed (if dialup)
• Cost of monthly connection
• Internet Service Provider
• Problems, if any, that you have had with your connection

Run one or more of the speed tests referred to elsewhere in this document to obtain data on your effective connection speed. Repeat your test several times. When reporting your results include the time of day that the test was run.

Give some insight into the future of Internet connection methods. List any references (URLs or otherwise) that you use. Report must be word-processed with suitable formatting and identification.